Kidney Diseases & Treatments
Kidney Diseases
Kidney cancer is usually defined as any cancer that is determined to have arisen from the kidney. It usually does not include metastatic cancer of the kidney. Cancer that arose outside of the kidney and has spread to it.
Kidney stones are formed from stones or renal calculi in the ureter. The stones are solid concretions or calculi formed in the kidneys from dissolved urinary minerals. Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size before passage on the order of at least 2-3—millimeters they can cause obstruction of the ureter.
Kidney Cysts that form on the kidneys usually contain fluid. One or more cysts may develop on small tubes in the kidneys. The simple kidney cyst is different from the cysts that develop when a person has polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disease. Although its cause is not fully understood, the simple cyst is not an inherited condition. Simple kidney cysts become more common as people age.


Kidney cancer treatment depends upon the basis of types and stages of the disease. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nephrectomy are accepted the treatments. In renal cell carcinoma, treatment depends on the stage of the cancer, but typically does not involve chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as renal cell carcinoma is resistant to these therapies. Treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma consists of nephrectomy alone, with no adjuvant (post surgical) therapy. In metastatic renal cell carcinoma,treatment consists of targeted therapies such as torisel, nexavar and sutent, the use of immunotherapy including interferon and interleukin-2, and in some cases, nephrectomy.
Clinical diagnosis is usually made on the basis of the location and severity of the pain, which is typically colicky in nature (comes and goes in spasmodic waves). Pain in the back occurs when calculi produce an obstruction in the kidney.
The relatively dense calcium renders these stones radio-opaque and they can be detected by a traditional X-ray of the abdomen that includes the Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder—KUB. This may be followed by an IVP (Intravenous Pyelogram; (IntraVenous Urogram (IVU) is the same test by another name)) which requires about 50 ml of a special dye to be injected into the bloodstream that is excreted by the kidneys and by its density helps outline any stone on a repeated X-ray. These can also be detected by a ‘Retrograde Pyelogram’ where similar "dye" is injected directly into the ureteral opening in the bladder by a surgeon, usually an urologist.
The kidney cyst is large or causing discomfort, don't need invasive surgery to treat a kidney cyst. In some cases, a doctor can insert a needle into the body and, using ultrasound to guide the way, drain the fluid from the cyst. Alcohol is an injected into the area to firm the affected tissue. Even with larger cysts where surgery is called for, highly invasive surgery isn't necessary. Instead, the surgeon inserts a tool called a laparoscope into a small incision in the abdomen. This tool can be used to drain the cyst and take out any excess tissue. The recovery time will be minimal, with a hospital stay of one or two days.
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